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Industry Description and Practices

Steel mills normally use the electric arc furnace (EAF), Induction Furnace Or Oxygen Furnaces to produce steel from returned steel, scrap, and direct reduced iron. EAF is a batch process with a cycle time of about two to three hours. Since the process uses scrap metal instead of molten iron, coke-making and iron-making operations are eliminated. EAFs can economically serve small, local markets.
Further processing of steel can include continuous casting, hot rolling and forming, cold rolling, wire drawing, coating, and pickling. The continuous casting process bypasses several steps of the conventional ingot teeming process by cast- ing steel directly into semifinished shapes. The casting, rolling, and steel finishing processes are also used in iron and steel manufacturing.

Hot steel is transformed in size and shape through a series of hot rolling and forming steps to manufacture semifinished and finished steel products. The hot rolling process consists of slab- heating (as well as billet and bloom), rolling, and forming operations. Several types of hot forming mills ( primary, section, flat, pipe and tube, wire, rebar, and profile ) manufacture a variety of steel products.
For the manufacture of a very thin strip or a strip with a high quality finish, cold rolling must follow the hot rolling operations. Lubricants emulsified in water are usually used to achieve high surface quality and to prevent overheating of the product.

Wire drawing includes heat treatment of rods, cleaning, and sometimes coating. Water, oil, or lead baths are used for cooling and to impart desired features.

To prepare the steel for cold rolling or drawing, acid pickling is performed to chemically remove oxides and scale from the surface of the steel through use of inorganic acid water solutions. Mixed acids (nitric and hydrofluoric) are used for stainless steel pickling; sulfuric or hydrochloric acid is used for other steels. Other methods for removing scale include salt pickling, electrolytic pickling, and blasting; blasting is environmentally desirable, where feasible.

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Steel mills normally use the electric arc furnace (EAF), Induction Furnace Or Oxygen Furnaces to produce steel from returned steel, scrap, and direct reduced iron.
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EAFs produce metal dusts, slag, and gaseous emissions. The primary hazardous components of EAF dust are zinc, lead, and cadmium; nickel and chromium...
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Emissions levels for the design and operation of each project must be established through the en- vironmental assessment (EA) process on the basis...
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For the manufacture of a very thin strip or a strip with a high quality finish, cold rolling must follow the hot rolling operations. .
Read More
 
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